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1. Vitiligo bibliography and references

2. Psoriasis bibliography and references

3. Acne bibliography and references


1. Vitiligo bibliography and references

AHMED, S. (1998) ‘Animated Borders: Skin, Colour and Tanning', in Shildrick, M. and Price, J. (eds.) Vital Signs, Texts, Borders and Biomedicine , Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press.
BBC RADIO 4 (2002) ‘Skin Deep' 13 October 2002 , 13.30-14.00pm .
BRYMAN, A. (2001) Social Research Methods , Oxford : Oxford University Press.
BULL, R. and DAVID, I. (1986) ‘The Stigmatising Effect of Facial Disfigurement', Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology , vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 99-108.
ELLIS, C. (1998) ‘ “I Hate My Voice”: Coming to Terms with Minor Bodily Stigmas', The Sociological Quarterly , vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 517-537.
FINALY, A. Y. and COLES, E. C. (1995) ‘The Effect of Severe Psoriasis on the Quality of Life of 369 Patients', British Journal of Dermatology , vol. 132, pp. 236-244.
GARDENER, C. B. (1991) ‘Stigma and the Public Self: Notes on Communication, Self and Others', Journal of Contemporary Ethnography , vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 251-262.
GOFFMAN, E. (1963) Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity , London : Prentice-Hall Press.
GUARDIAN (1997) ‘Losing Face: Janet Haslam on the Skin Disease which Causes Gradual Loss of Colour' 2 December 1997 , p. 16.
HAWKESWORTH, M. (2001) ‘Disabling Spatialities and the Regulation of a Visible Secret', Urban Studies , vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 299-318.
JACOBY, A. (1998) ‘Felt Versus Enacted Stigma: A Concept Revisited', Social Science and Medicine , vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 269-274.
KENT , G. (1999) ‘Correlates of Perceived Stigma in Vitiligo', Psychology and Health , vol. 15, pp. 241-251.
KENT, G. (2000) ‘Understanding the Experiences of People with Disfigurement: An Integration of Four Models of Social and Psychological Functioning', Psychology, Health and Medicine , vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 117-129
LEE-TREWEEK, G. and LINKGOLE, S. (eds.) (2000) Danger in the Field: Risk and Ethics in Social Research , London : Routledge.
LESAGE, M. (2002) Vitiligo: Understanding the Loss of Skin Colour , second edition, London : The Vitiligo Society.
MAGIONE, T. W. (1995) Mail Surveys: Improving the Quality , Thousand Oaks , California : Sage Publications.
MONTAGU, A. (1971) Touching: The Human Significance of the Skin , London : Columbia University Press.
NEW YORK TIMES (2003) ‘A Guide to Skin Disease Through the Eyes of a Boy' 15 July 2003 , p. F7, col. 5.
OBSERVER (2002) ‘Ebony and Ivory' 10 November 2002 , p. 23.
PORTER, J. R. and BEUF, A. H. (1988) ‘Response of Older People to Impaired Appearance: The Effect of Age on Disturbance of Vitiligo', Journal of Ageing Studies , vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 167-181.
PORTER, J. R. et. al. (1990) ‘The Effect of Vitiligo on Sexual Relationships', Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology , vol. 22, pp. 221-222.
PORTER, J. R. and BEUF, A. H. (1991) ‘Racial Variation in Reaction to Physical Stigma: A Study of Degree of Disturbance by Vitiligo Among Black and White Patients', Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 192-204.
ROSENBERG , M. (1965) Society and the Adolescent Self-Image , Princeton , New Jersey : Princeton University Press.
SCAMBLER, G. AND HOPKINS, A. (1980) ‘Being Epileptic: Coming to Terms with Stigma', Sociology of Health and Illness , vol. 8, pp. 26-45.
WILLIAMS, J. I. (1971) ‘Disease as Deviance', Social Science and Medicine , vol. 5, pp. 219-226.

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2. Psoriasis bibliography and references

Bowcock AM: Genetic locus for psoriasis identified. Ann Med 1995 Apr; 27(2): 183-6[Medline].
Cullar ML, Espinoza LR: Psoriatic arthritis: Current developments. J Fla Med Assoc 1995; 82 (5): 338-42.
Elder JT, Henseler T, Christophers E, et al: Of genes and antigens: the inheritance of psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol 1994 Nov; 103(5 Suppl): 150S-153S[Medline].
Farber EM, Nall L: Psoriasis. A review of recent advances in treatment. Drugs 1984 Oct; 28(4): 324-46[Medline].
Farber EM: Therapeutic perspectives in psoriasis. Int J Dermatol 1995 Jul; 34(7): 456-60[Medline].
Greaves MW, Weinstein GD: Treatment of psoriasis. N Engl J Med 1995 Mar 2; 332(9): 581-8[Medline].
Lebwohl MG: The evolution of vitamin D analogues for the treatment of psoriasis. Arch Dermatol 1995 Nov; 131(11): 1323-4[Medline].
Lewis HM: Therapeutic progress. II: Treatment of psoriasis. J Clin Pharm Ther 1994 Aug; 19(4): 223-32[Medline].
Naldi L: Psoriasis. Dermatol Clin 1995 Jul; 13(3): 635-47[Medline].
Pines A, Ehrenfeld M, Fisman EZ, et al: Mitral valve prolapse in psoriatic arthritis. Arch Intern Med 1986 Jul; 146(7): 1371-3[Medline].
Raychaudhuri SP, Rein G, Farber EM: Neuropathogenesis and neuropharmacology of psoriasis. Int J Dermatol 1995 Oct; 34(10): 685-93[Medline].
Task Force on Psoriasis: Guidelines of care for psoriasis. Committee on Guidelines of Care. Task Force on Psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993 Apr; 28(4): 632-7[Medline].
Valdimarsson H, Sigmundsdottir H, Jonsdottir I: Is psoriasis induced by streptococcal superantigens and maintained by M- protein-specific T cells that cross-react with keratin? Clin Exp Immunol 1997 Jan; 107 Suppl 1: 21-4[Medline].
Weinstein, GD: Tazarotene: A novel retinoid for the topical treatment of psoriasis. Pharmacy and Therapeutics 1997; August: 377-81.

Charmaz K. Good Days, Bad Days: The Self in Chronic Illness and Time. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press; 1993.

Cram DL. Coping With Psoriasis: A Patient's Guide to Treatment. Omaha, Neb: Addicus Books; 2000.

Derzaph ED. Psoriasis: The Struggle and the Triumph—A Healthy Transformation for Everyone Living With Psoriasis. Bloomington, Ind: 1stBooks Library; 2003.

Dewke ES. Flake: Confessions of a Psoriatic. Lexington, Ky: BGC Books; 1996.

Grossbart TA, Sherman C. Skin Deep: A Mind/Body Program for Healthy Skin. Rev ed. Santa Fe, NM: Health Press; 1992.

LeVan L. The Psoriasis Cure. Garden City Park, NY: Avery Publishing Group; 1999.

Lowe NJ. Managing Your Psoriasis. New York, NY: Mastermedia; 1993.

National Psoriasis Foundation. The Best of It Works For Me: 1991–1999. Portland, Ore: National Psoriasis Foundation; 2000.

Pitzele SK. We Are Not Alone: Learning to Live With Chronic Illness. New York, NY: Workman Publishing; 1986.

Abell E. Treatment of psoriatic nail dystrophy. Br J Dermatol 1972;86:79-82.

duVivier A, Stoughton RB. Tachyphylaxis to the action of topically applied corticosteroids. Arch Dermatol 1975;111:581-3.

Katz HI, Hien HT, Prawer SE, et al. Superpotent topical steroid treatment of psoriasis vulgaris: clinical efficacy and adrenal function. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1987;16:804-11.

Lee SS. Topical steroids (review). Int J Dermatol 1981;20:632-41.

Nilsson JE, Gip LJ. Systemic effects of local treatment with high doses of potent corticosteroids in psoriatics. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 1979;59:245-8.

Tan PL, Barnett GL, Flowers FP, et al. Current topical corticosteroid preparations. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1986;14:79-93.

Vickers CFH. Topical corticosteroids. In: Fitzpatrick TB, Eisen AZ, Wolff K, et al, eds. Dermatology in general medicine. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987:2540-5.

Chapman RS, Finn OA. An assessment of high and low temperature tars in psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1976;94:71-4.

Finlay AY, Young DW. Short contact coal tar therapy for psoriasis. Clin Exp Dermatol 1985;10:371-4.

Lavker RM, Grove GL, Kligman AM. The atrophogenic effect of crude coal tar on human epidermis. Br J Dermatol 1981;105:77-82.

Lin AN, Moses K. Tar revisited. Int J Dermatol 1985;24:216-8.

Lowe NJ, Wortzman MS, Breeding J, et al. Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1983;8:781-9.

Petrozzi JW, Barton JO, Kaidbey KH, et al. Updating the Goeckerman regimen for psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1978;98:437-44.

Stern RS, Gange RW, Parrish JA, et al. Contribution of topical tar oil to ultraviolet B phototherapy for psoriasis. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1986;14:742-7.

Young E. The external treatment of psoriasis: a controlled investigation of the effects of coal tar. Br J Dermatol 1970;82:510-5.

Abel EA, O’Connell BM, Farber EM. Psoriasis day care center at Stanford: part-time and full-time programs. Int J Dermatol 1987;26:500-7.

Ashton RE, Andre P, Lowe NJ, et al. Anthralin: historical and current perspectives. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1983;9:173-92.

Ingram JT. The approach to psoriasis. Br Med J 1953;591-4.

Lowe NJ, Ashton RE, Koudsi H, et al. Anthralin for psoriasis: short-contact anthralin therapy compared with topical steroid and conventional anthralin. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1984;10:69-72.

Ryatt KS, Statham BN, Rowell NR. Short-contact modification of the Ingram regimen. Br J Dermatol 1984;111:455-9.

Davies MG, Briffa DV, Greeves MW. Systemic toxicity from topically applied salicylic acid. Br Med J 1979;1:661.

Going SM, Guyer BM, Jarvie DR, et al. Salicylic acid gel for scalp psoriasis. Clin Exp Dermatol 1986;11:260-2.

Goldsmith LA. Salicylic acid. Int J Dermatol 1979;18:32-6.

Hulsebosch HJ, Ponec-Waelsch M. The interaction of anthralin, salicylic acid and zinc oxide in pastes. Dermatologica 1972;144:287-93.

Van Scott EJ, Yu RJ. Alpha hydroxy acids: procedures for use in clinical practice. Cutis 1989;43:222-8.

Van Scott EJ, Yu RJ. Control of keratinization with L-hydroxy acids and related compounds. Arch Dermatol 1974;110:586-90.

Rosenberg EW, Noah PW, Zanolli MD, et al. Use of rifampin with penicillin and erythromycin in the treatment of psoriasis. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1986;14:701-4.

Rosenberg EW, Skinner RB, Noah PW. Antimicrobial treatment of psoriasis. In: Roenigk HH, Maibach HI, eds. Psoriasis. 2nd ed. revised and expanded. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1991:815-22.

Tefler NR, Chalmers RJG, Wale K, et al. The role of streptococcal infection in the initiation of guttate psoriasis. Arch Dermatol 1992;128:39-42.

Whyte HS, Baughman RD. Acute guttate psoriasis and streptococcal infection. Arch Dermatol 1964;89:350-6.

Ashton RE, Millward-Sadler GH, White JE. Complications in methotrexate treatment of psoriasis with particular reference to liver fibrosis. J Invest Dermatol 1982;79-229-32.

Dahl MGC. Methotrexate and the liver. Br J Dermatol 1969;81:465-7.

Hanno R, Gruber GG, Owen LG, et al. Methotrexate in psoriasis. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1980;2:171-4.

Jolivet J, Cowan KH, Curg GA, et al. The pharmacology and clinical use of methotrexate. N Engl J Med 1983;309:1094-104.

Reese LT, Grisham JW, Aach RD, et al. Effects of methotrexate on the liver in psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol 1974;62:597-602.

Roenigk HH, Auerbach R, Maibach HI, et al. Methotrexate in psoriasis: revised guidelines. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1988;19:145-56.

Weinstein GD. Methotrexate. Ann Intern Med 1977;86:199-204.

Zachariae H, Kragballe K, Søgaard H. Methotrexate-induced liver cirrhosis. Br J Dermatol 1980;102:407-12.

Leavell UW, Mersack IP, Smith C. Survey of the treatment of psoriasis with hydroxyurea. Arch Dermatol 1973;107:467.

McDonald CJ. Chemotherapy of psoriasis. Int J Dermatol 1975;14:563-74.

Moschella SL. Chemotherapy of psoriasis: ten years of experience.. Int J Dermatol 1976;15:373-8.

Moschella SL, Greenwald MA. Psoriasis with hydroxyurea: an eighteen month study of sixty patients. Arch Dermatol 1973;107:363-8.

Roe LD, Wilson JW. Hydroxyurea therapy. Arch Dermatol 1973;108:426-7.

Rosten M. Hydroxyurea: a new antimetabolite in the treatment of psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1971;85:177-81.

Ellis CN, Hermann RC, Gorsulowsky DC, et al. Etretinate therapy reduces inpatient treatment of psoriasis. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1987;17:787-91.

Ellis CN, Swanson NA, Grekin RC, et al. Etretinate therapy causes increases in lipid levels in patients with psoriasis. Arch Dermatol 1982;118:559-62.

Ellis CN, Voorhees JJ. Etretinate therapy. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1987;16:267-91.

Goldfarb MT, Ellis CN, Gupta AK, et al. Acitretin improves psoriasis in a dose-dependent fashion. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1988;18:655-62.

Goldfarb MT, Ellis CN, Voorhees JJ. Short-term and long-term considerations in the management of psoriasis with retinoids. Dermatologica 1987;175:100-6.

Kaplan RP, Russell DH, Lowe NJ. Etretinate therapy for psoriasis: clinical responses, remission times, epidermal DNA and polyamine responses. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1983;8:95-102.

Lowe NJ, Lazarus V, Matt L. Systemic retinoid therapy for psoriasis. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1988;19:186-91.

Roenigk HH, Gibstine C, Glazer S, et al. Serial liver biopsies in psoriatic patients receiving long-term etretinate. Br J Dermatol 1985;112:77-81.

Silverman AK, Ellis CN, Voorhees JJ. Hypervitaminosis A syndrome: a paradigm of retinoid side effects. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1987;16:1027-39.

White SI, Marks JM, Shuster S. Etretinate in pustular psoriasis of palms and soles. Br J Dermatol 1985;113:581-5.

Wolska H, Jablonska S, Bounameaux Y. Etretinate in severe psoriasis. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1983;9:883-9.

Fergusson AG, Dwar WA. Observations on steroid therapy in psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1957;69:57-60.

Goodwin P. The effect of corticosteroids on cell turnover in the psoriatic patient: a review. Br J Dermatol 1976;94:95-100.

Mikhail GR, Livingood CS, Mellinger RC, et al. Effect of long-acting parental corticosteroids on adrenal function. Arch Dermatol 1969;100:263-8.

Storrs FJ. Use and abuse of systemic corticosteroid therapy. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1979;1:95-105.

Adrian RM, Parrish JA, Momtaz TK, et al. Outpatient phototherapy for psoriasis. Arch Dermatol 1981;117:623-6.

Diffey BL, Farr PM. An appraisal of ultraviolet lamps used for the phototherapy of psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1987;117:49-56.

Levine MJ, Parrish JA. Outpatient phototherapy of psoriasis. Arch Dermatol 1980;116:552-4.

Parrish JA. Photobiologic principles of phototherapy and photochemotherapy of psoriasis. Pharmacol Ther 1981;15:439-46.

Parrish JA. Ultraviolet phototherapy of psoriasis. Pharmacol Ther 1981;15:313-20.

Stern RS, Armstrong RB, Anderson TF, et al. Effect of continued ultraviolet B phototherapy on the duration of remission of psoriasis: a randomized study. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1986;15:546-52.

Farber EM, Abel EA, Cox AJ. Long-term risks of psoralen and UV-A therapy for psoriasis. Arch Dermatol 1983;119:426-31.

Lowe NJ, Weingarten D, Bourget T, et al. PUVA therapy for psoriasis: comparison of oral and bath-water delivery of 8-methoxypsoralen. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1986;14:754-60.

McEvoy MT, Stern RS. Psoralens and related compounds in the treatment of psoriasis. Pharmacol Ther 1987;34:75-97.

Melski J, Tanenbaum, L, Parrish JA, et al. Oral methoxsalen photochemotherapy for treatment of psoriasis: a cooperative clinical trial. J Invest Dermatol 1977;68:328-35.

Morison WL. PUVA combination therapy. Photodermatology 1985;2:229-36.

Parrish JA, Fitzpatrick TB, Tanenbaum L, et al. Photochemotherapy of psoriasis with oral methoxsalen and long-wave ultraviolet light. N Engl J Med 1974;291:1207-11.

Parrish JA, LeVine MJ, Fitzpatrick TB. Oral methoxsalen photochemotherapy of psoriasis and mycosis fungoides. Int J Dermatol 1980;19:379-86.

Stern RS, Thibodeau LA, Kleinerman RA, et al. Risk of cutaneous carcinoma in patients treated with oral methoxsalen photochemotherapy for psoriasis. N Engl J Med 1979;300:809-13.

Bohm ML, Voorhees JJ. The role of the ambulatory psoriasis treatment center as a cost-effective program for severe psoriasis. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1985;12:740-7.

Bohm ML, Voorhees JJ. White paper on hospitalization for psoriasis care. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1984;10:842-51.

Menter A, Cram DL. The Goeckerman regimen in two psoriasis day care centers. J AM ACAD DERMATOL 1983;9:59-65.

Menter MA, Whiting DA, McWilliams J. Resistant childhood psoriasis: an analysis of patients seen in a day car center. Pediatr Dermatol 1984;2:8-12.

Muller SA, Perry HO. The Goeckerman treatment in psoriasis: six decades of experience at the Mayo Clinic. Cutis 1984;34:265-8, 270.

Perry HO, Soderstrom CW, Schulze TW. The Goeckerman treatment of psoriasis. Arch Dermatol 1968;98:178-82.

Pittelkow MR, Perry HO, Muller SA, et al. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis treated with coal tar: a 25-year follow-up study. Arch Dermatol 1981;117:465-8.

Fritsch P, Honigsmann H, Jaschke E, et al. Augmentation of oral methoxsalen-photochemotherapy with an oral retinoic acid derivative. J Invest Dermatol 1978;70-178-82.

Michaelsson G, Noren P, Vahlquist A. Combined therapy with oral retinoid and PUVA baths in severe psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1978;99:221-2.

Van de Kerkhof PCM, Volden G, Gollnick H. Comparisons and combinations. In: Mier P, Van de Kerkhof PCM, eds. Textbook of psoriasis. New York: Churchill-Livingstone, 1986:268-77

Stern RS. Utilization of outpatient care for psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;35:543-545.

Nanda A, Kaur S, Kaur I, Kumar B. Childhood psoriasis: an epidemiologic survey of 112 patients. Pediatr Dermatol. 1990;7:19-21.

Leung DY, Travers JB, Giorno R, et al. Evidence for a streptococcal superantigen-driven process in acute guttate psoriasis. J Clin Invest. 1995;96:2106-2112.

Ryan TJ, Baker H. The prognosis of generalized pustular psoriasis. Br J Dermatol. 1971;85:407-411.

Ohkawara A, Yasuda H, Kobayashi H, et al. Generalized pustular psoriasis in Japan: two distinct groups formed by differences in symptoms and genetic background. Acta Derm Venereol. 1996;76:68-71.

Boyd AS, Menter A. Erythrodermic psoriasis. Precipitating factors, course, and prognosis in 50 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21:985-991.

Lebwohl M, Ali S. Treatment of psoriasis. Part 1. Topical therapy and phototherapy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45:487-498.

Honigsmann H. Phototherapy for psoriasis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001;26:343-350.

arrish JA, Jaenicke KF. Action spectrum for phototherapy of psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol. 1981;76:359-362.

Shelk J, Morgan P. Narrow-band UVB: a practical approach. Dermatol Nurs. 2000;12:407-411.

Spann CT, Barbagallo J, Weinberg JM. A review of the 308-nm excimer laser in the treatment of psoriasis. Cutis. 2001;68:351-352.

Finlay AY, Khan GK. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI)--a simple practical measure for routine clinical use. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1994;19:210-216.

Krueger GG, Feldman SR, Camisa C, et al. Two considerations for patients with psoriasis and their clinicians: what defines mild, moderate, and severe psoriasis? What constitutes a clinically significant improvement when treating psoriasis? J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;43:281-285.

Parrish JA, Fitzpatrick TB, Tanenbaum L, Pathak MA. Photochemotherapy of psoriasis with oral methoxsalen and longwave ultraviolet light. N Engl J Med. 1974;291:1207-1211.

Helm TN, Camisa C. "Psoralens and photochemotherapy (PUVA)". In: Handbook of Psoriasis, ed.2, Camisa C (ed), 2004, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp.191-214.

Lebwohl M, Ali S. Treatment of psoriasis. Part 2. Systemic therapies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45:649-661.

Roenigk HH Jr, Bergfeld WF, Curtis GH. Methotrexate for psoriasis in weekly oral doses. Arch Dermatol. 1969;99:86-93.

Heydendael VM, Spuls PI, Opmeer BC, et al. Methotrexate versus cyclosporine in moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349:658-665.

Roenigk HH Jr, Auerbach R, Maibach H, Weinstein G, Lebwohl M. Methotrexate in psoriasis: consensus conference. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38:478-485.

Lebwohl M, Ellis C, Gottlieb A, Koo J, Krueger G, Linden K, et al. Cyclosporine consensus conference: with emphasis on the treatment of psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;39:464-475.

van De Kerkhof PC. New developments in the treatment of psoriasis. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2001;14:129-135.

Kumar B, Saraswat A, Kaur I. Rediscovering hydroxyurea: its role in recalcitrant psoriasis. Int J Dermatol. 2001;40:530-534.

Duvivier A, Munro DD, Verbov J. Treatment of psoriasis with azathioprine. Br Med J. 1974;1:49-51.

Silvis NG, Levine N. Pulse dosing of thioguanine in recalcitrant psoriasis. Arch Dermatol. 1999;135:433-437.

Epinette WW, Parker CM, Jones EL, Greist MC. Mycophenolic acid for psoriasis. A review of pharmacology, long-term efficacy, and safety. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:962-971.

Ameen M, Smith HR, Barker JN. Combined mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporine therapy for severe recalcitrant psoriasis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001;26:480-483.

Gupta AK, Ellis CN, Seigel MT, et al. Sulfasalazine improves psoriasis. A double-blind analysis. Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:487-493.

Combe B, Gouipille P, Kuntz JL, et al. Sulfasalazine in psoriaitic arthritis: a randomized, multi-centre, placebo-controlled study. Br J Rheumatol. 1996;35:664-668.

European FK 506 Multi-centre psoriasis study group. Systemic tacrolimus (FK-506) is effective for the treatment of psoriasis in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arch Dermatol. 1996;132:419-423.

Rappersberger K, Komar M, Ebelin ME, et al. Pimecrolimus identifies a common genomic anti-inflammatory profile, is clinically highly effective in psoriasis and is well tolerated. J Invest Dermatol. 119;876-887, 2002.

Granstein RD. New treatments for psoriasis. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:284-287.

Ellis CN, Krueger GG. Alefacept Clinical Study Group. Treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis by selective targeting of memory effector T lymphocytes. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:248-255.

Lebwohl M, Tyring SK, Hamilton TK, et al. A novel targeted T-cell modulator, efalizumab, for plaque psoriasis. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:2004-2013.

Leonardi C, Powers JL, Matheson RT, et al. Etanercept as monotherapy in patients with psoriasis. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:2014-2022.

Gottlieb AB, Evans R, Li S, et al. Infliximab induction therapy for patients with severe plaque-type psoriasis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;51:534-42.

Scher RK, Stiller M, Zhu YI. Tazarotene 0.1% gel in the treatment of fingernail psoriasis: a double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study. Cutis. 2001;68:355-358. [top of page]


3. Acne bibliography and references

Fulton JE Jr, Plewig G, Kligman AM. Effect of chocolate on acne vulgaris. JAMA 1969;210:2071–74
Anderson PC. Foods as the cause of acne. Am Family Phys 1971;3:102–3.
Gaby A. Commentary. Nutr Healing Feb 1997;1,10,11.
Hillstrom L et al. Comparison of oral treatment with zinc sulfate and placebo in acne vulgaris. Br J Dermatol 1977;97:679–84.
Michaelsson G et al. A double blind study of the effect of zinc and oxytetracycline in acne vulgaris. Br J Dermatol 1977;97:561–66.
Kligman AM et al. Oral vitamin A in acne vulgaris. Int J Dermatol 1981;20:278–85.
Snider B, Dietman DF. Pyridoxine therapy for premenstrual acne flare. Arch Dermatol 1974;110:130–31.
Leung LH. Pantothenic acid deficiency as the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Med Hypoth 1995;44:490–92.
Shality AR, Smith JR, Parish LC, et al. Topical nicotinamide compared with clindamycin gel in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris. Internat Dermatol 1995;34:434–37.
Bassett IB, Pannowitz DL, Barnetson RS. A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of acne. Med J Austral 1990;53:455–58.
Hoffman D. The Herbal Handbook: A User’s Guide to Medical Herbalism. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 1988, 23–24.
Amann W. Improvement of acne vulgaris with Agnus castus (Agnolyt ™). Ther Gegenw. 1967;106:124–26 [in German].
Birnkrant MJ, Papadopoulos AJ, Schwartz RA, Lambert WC: Pyoderma gangrenosum, acne conglobata, and IgA gammopathy. Int J Dermatol 2003 Mar; 42(3): 213-6[Medline].
Champion RH, Burton JL, Burns DA, Breathnach SM, eds: Rook/Wilkinson/Ebling Textbook of Dermatology. 6th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 1998:1967,1979.
Cunliffe WJ: Acne. 3rd ed. Martin Dunitz Publishers; 1993.
Ehrenfeld M, Samra Y, Kaplinsky N: Acne conglobata and arthritis: report of a case and review of the literature. Clin Rheumatol 1986 Sep; 5(3): 407-9[Medline].
el-Shahawy MA, Gadallah MF, Massry SG: Acne: a potential side effect of cyclosporine A therapy. Nephron 1996; 72(4): 679-82[Medline].
Ena P, Zanetti S, Sechi LA: Mycobacterium chelonae I infection mimicking acne conglobata in an immunocompetent host. Clin Exp Dermatol 2004 Jul; 29(4): 423-5[Medline].
Jansen T, Burgdorf WH, Plewig G: Pathogenesis and treatment of acne in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol 1997 Jan-Feb; 14(1): 17-21[Medline].
Jeong S, Lee CW: Acne conglobata: treatment with isotretinoin, colchicine, and cyclosporin as compared with surgical intervention. Clin Exp Dermatol 1996 Nov; 21(6): 462-3[Medline].
Leybishkis B, Fasseas P, Ryan KF, Roy R: Hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata associated with spondyloarthropathy. Am J Med Sci 2001 Mar; 321(3): 195-7[Medline].
Leyden JJ, Mills OH, Kligman AM: Cryoprobe treatment of acne conglobata. Br J Dermatol 1974 Mar; 90(3): 335-41[Medline].
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Psoriasis is a common skin disease that causes raised red skin with thick silvery scales.


Vitiligo is a disorder in which white patches of skin appear on the body

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Hair loss usually develops gradually and may be patchy or diffuse


Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous oil glands that leads to skin infections


Inflammation of the skin, often a rash, swelling, pain, itching, cracking. Can be caused by an irritant or allergen

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